Posts tagged TOEFL

Persuasive Reasons for Kazakh Students to Start Blogging

The following comments are from Moodle in the Forum section where my PDP students, who are seasoned teachers, write about what they read in an article about blogging.  See what you think about these three reflections:

Student A – We know all about Internet, blogs, software programs and computers. But, how to use them in the lesson.

In my opinion, the blogs give us a chance to communicate between us and motivate us to write more. When we publish on a blog, students or teachers from other schools can respond by using the comment links. And by reading comments we can know our weaknesses and our progress. In addition, teachers can write some tasks on a blog and students may respond to them. Using blogs are very comfortable and available both for teachers or students

Student B – Well, look, I`ve read two articles on reflections in teaching. one is concerned with sharing opinion in free talks between teacher and students, the other is about teaching through blogging. one can`t deny the new until one tries himself. frankly, i`m not sure it`ll work with secondary school students and in language learning exactly. blogging will be nice for adults, researchers of the definite problem, to discuss the issue of research, share views and etc.

May be, i`m a “wet blanket”, but I do not take blogging serious

My Response to Student B

Why not blogging for students? It wouldn’t work for students who have a low level of English proficiency but for those who are preparing for IELTS or for TOEFL it is an informal way of venting, expressing themselves, of getting things out there for an audience and to find their voice. That is all needed when you are doing FORMAL academic writing to find your own voice and if you can’t do it in an informal setting such as blogging, then how can you go the next level up to academic writing if you don’t know who you are? If there is any kind of integrity to be found in academic writing it needs to be from a person who has a passion about what they think and write. Why go through the motions of writing a paper if you don’t involve yourself in the paper. Then it is just being mechanical and not caring what you write and not caring about what the audience is reading of your thoughts. WHAT A WASTE of time!!!

So, please consider carefully how blogging can be of great benefit. Did you really read the article on blogging? Were you really not convinced that it could benefit and augment learner autonomy?

Student C

I can say that I ABSOLUTELY like the idea of this article. It is important to teach our students to express their feelings, ideas and thoughts; also turn extrinsic motivations into intrinsic ones. I suppose that developing writing skills is the most difficult. But through improving them we can develop our speech as well. Making Blogs can give more opportunities to express own ideas and give comments and get to know others’ thoughts. During writing a student think about finding synonyms, paraphrasing and correcting spelling mistakes. It is great to increase knowledge in the English language. In Blogging a teacher can realize different forms of learning: individual, pair, or group work. It just requires having computers and access to Internet. This article describes students’ work on making blogs step by step (there are 8 steps). Blogging also makes students work individually.

We CAN and MUST use it because of its fruitful results.

Comments (1) »

Trust, Tolerance, Traditions and Transparency

Such nice alliterations, impressive words that will be bandied about by very important people from 55 different countries in a couple of weeks in Astana, Kazakhstan.  I’d like to write about the last one concerning “Transparency” based on conversations I have had with Kazakhs in the last several days.  For instance, after showing a movie this weekend Ken and I sat around and talked about a LOT of things not related to the movie with our Kazakh friends. We had just shown “You’ve Got Mail” at American Corner. Simple storyline of guy gets the girl but only after a confusing, non-transparent romance over Internet for the balance of the movie.

For some reason we got on the subject about corruption. I brought up how Ken, my economist husband, had been given a bribe in Ukraine from a Nigerian woman who wanted to pass his MBA course.  She had slipped two one hundred dollar bills in a book that she gave back to him. When he went to the rector to complain about it, the rector didn’t believe him. Also, this woman named Caroline, denied doing it.  Unfortunately, she was out her $200 bribe money and she also did not pass the course. She was abysmally slow and perhaps in Ukraine on false pretenses on a student visa. Ken gave the two bills to a deserving American couple who work with orphans.

I told this story to my Kazakh audience with the same aghast feelings that we both felt back five years ago when this happened.  The Kazakhs knowingly smiled at me and admitted, “happens all the time here in Kazakhstan…nothing surprising about that.”  Wow, Ken and I come from a world at the grass roots level, where nothing like bribing and corruption happens. Garden variety Americans like us don’t have to worry about paying someone off or being cheated out of something due to nepotism.  I know there is a Transparency Index and Kazakhstan is not illuminated as high on that chart, nor are any of the former Soviet Union countries, for that matter.

As a result of this topic that was brought up on corruption, I found out about two women who had applied for the Bolashak program and had taken the requisite IELTS exam.  (This is the British form of the TOEFL exam that checks their English level of reading, speaking, listening and writing skills).  The one woman who explained what had happened to her back in 2003 claimed that she never did find out her IELTS scores. Two years later she found out that she had indeed passed and she was supposed to have been awarded the Bolashak scholarship.  Her parents hadn’t pursued it and when the police came by to investigate the charges, they didn’t sign the paper for her to seek retribution.  This had happened to another person, exact same time.  Out of seven people, this had happened to two of them?  Not good!

Apparently now, to rectify this problem of weak candidates buying off the grades of other people’s passing scores for the IELTS exam, they assure the test takers that their scores will be sent to them within two weeks, directly to their home address.  So, whoever was in charge of the tests over five years ago preyed upon those who didn’t pursue what the test results were. Apparently they gave those good, passing scores to someone else who was able to pay for this prestigious award.  Believe me, I have seen a few of those returning Bolashak “scholars” who went to the U.K. and were awarded a masters degree after only one year of study who clearly still have trouble with their English grammar and writing.  How they were able to cobble together a paper for their final project is baffling to me. There needs to be more transparency in the Bolashak program and perhaps they are working on that. The existing environment in Kazakhstan is so strong that works against people who have integrity and want to reward those of merit.  Corruption abounds in the education sector yet we hold out hope that the new university in Astana will be different, transparent and corruption free.

Another example of bribes came up in class yesterday with one of the teachers who hails from the south of Kazakhstan where nepotism and corruption apparently is much more rampant than in the northern part of Kazakhstan.  She somehow landed a job in the north and when she got her first paycheck that was a significant increase, she and her husband fretted for weeks about how much money they were supposed to pay to whomever for this gift of a better salary.  She was so used to “oiling the skids” in order to get things done where she came from, she was incredulous that she didn’t have to slip money to anyone.  When she told her boss about her fears three or four months later, the boss just laughed as we all did in the classroom.  She admitted that that is the way things are accomplished in Kazakhstan, you pay your way to get the better grade or better position or better title.

So, it goes with traditions, if this is the Kazakh way, how are they going to convince outside investors from the West that they are transparent in all their actions? What are we as westerners to trust in the way of contracts that are written in English words that are not clearly understood by those people whose first language is either Kazakh or Russian.  Are we as westerners supposed to tolerate what we deem as dishonest? Kazakhs who have worked hard should be given their due, but instead they are elbowed out of their rightful positions because they don’t have enough money to pay off those in power.  How are these incidents that work against Kazakh people going to be discussed at the upcoming meeting?  I’d love to be a fly on the wall to hear all that will be said or NOT said about trust, tolerance, traditions and transparency.

Comments (2) »

Opening of New University in Astana, Kazakhstan

Today was a most auspicious occasion for many people at the newly built university campus with the official opening of the huge building complex in Astana.  Very high security was around because the president of the country was in attendance doing the honors, after all this university is named after him.  The photos can tell all (my words get in the way) about what the Kazakh students will experience once the main doors are actually opened to them in September.  I am very excited for those Kazakh students who have been accepted thus far. They have passed through some very rigid but necessary testing (IELTS and TOEFL exams) to make sure their level of English is prepared enough for taking in all the lectures and classes in English.  Many qualified English teachers in different subject areas from U.K. and U.S. will be overseeing the students’ instruction.  The future of Kazakhstan depends on these enthusiastic, young people to learn very quickly in order to compete with the rest of the world in business, technology and industry.  Many American “partners” from western universities were in attendance and others who could not attend gave speeches through closed circuit t.v. in big, airy rooms.  These are exciting times for all of us in Astana and throughout Kazakhstan where many of our highly qualified students are coming from!!!

Comments (3) »

Boston Weather, Hospitality and a Talk on Reading

Who ever said that Boston people aren’t helpful or polite to strangers?  Yesterday it was sleeting and coming at such a slant that I was prepared to be warm with layering my clothes and about to use a bag to shield myself in the mile and half walk.  The bellman at the hotel suggested I use an umbrella, so once that was checked out to me, I was good to go.  I wish I had taken a photo of this HUGE, black umbrella, it certainly protected me.  I felt especially warmed by this man’s help in complex, downtown Boston. Just doing his job at the Radisson, I guess.  Later the weather cleared up and after all day at TESOL, I walked over to Boston Commons to do some shopping at Macy’s.  I was turned around several times but again Boston people were more than helpful to get me to my destination.  Photos will follow.

Yesterday I wanted to take in Tufts University own linguist, Maryanne Wolf.  When you have a conference in Boston, you don’t have to fly in the main speakers, they are right in the near vicinity with all the universities Boston is known for.  I was told a figure yesterday that there are 200,000 students in Boston, 25,000 of whom are international students.  Not surprising that this is a mecca for the brightest and the best from around the world.

Ms. Wolf seemed a very smart woman, she talked so fast I had a difficult time keeping up with her in my notetaking.  I’ll just give the most salient points that she made, that which I understood from her linguist’s jargon.  When I arrived she had on her powerpoint something about Proust.  However, this quote from Pascal I did get down: “There’s nothing new under the sun, but there is rearrangment.”  She said that kids nowadays are immersed in the digital media 7 hours a day.  When she was summing up her talk she got back to how this may not be such a good thing.

Ms. Wolf said there is no such thing as an ideal reading brain. We were not created or meant to read but to speak and listen.  She used an audience participant in front of the 1,000s who came to hear her talk and asked her to visualize the word she spoke.  The Chinese woman was a bit confused by this question and with the cameras were right on her she hesitated to answer, so someone from the audience shouted out what they thought was the correct answer.  The point is that with polysemy, there are more than one meanings to certain words. The word or object Ms. Wolf asked for was “pea” or it could have been the letter “P.”  Her point is that there are many times that we have a familiarity with words but they may have  a different context such as the word “bat.”  Could be the flying rodent, the club to hit a ball or the verb to hit the ball.  She mentioned that one little 5 year old boy added, “to bat one’s eyes.”  So you have multiple meanings to one word.  If you know the context, you can read quicker.  There are different parts of our brains that are functioning differently depending on whether we see the letter P or the object pea, as a little green vegetable.

She related about another instance where a Chinese man knew how to read and speak in Chinese fluently.  Also, he was fluent in English but when he got a tumor on his brain, he was no longer able to speak in Chinese because it affected the function of his linguistic abilities in that area of the brain and so he could only speak in English which was in another area of his brain.  Ms. Wolf said that the brain can rearrange itself in multiple ways in order to read.

She also used another example of asking a 5 year old what’s the first sound of “cat.”  Talking from a linguist’s point of view she really was after the phoneme but a 5 year old will typically say “meow” as the answer to her question when she is really looking for the “k” sound.  It takes the child 2,000 days to gain the same insights in the development of reading.  She said that it is terrible that in Boston there are parents hiring tutors for their 3 year olds so they can be “outliers” and they are being pushed too fast, too hard.

She said that Tom Selleck in the movie “Three Men and a Baby” defends why he is reading to the baby, “because the baby loves the sound of my voice.”  That’s it, we should read to the children so they can put it together with the letters they see on the page and the objects that they are visualizing with the story.  They learn that in English we read from left to right but in Chinese it would be up and down and right to left.  The concepts are built in the children who are read to and it matters to them if you skip a page.

When considering “Language Expression” a child in the home of a professional parent will have heard 50 million words whereas a child who grows up in poverty on welfare will hear only 15 million words by the time they reach school.  A working class home will have heard about 32 million words spoken.  Therefore, there is Word Poverty.

Ms. Wolf asked the audience to pronounce three words:  “Periventricular; Nodular; Heterotopia.”   Bottomline, the more you know about a word and its separate parts, the faster you will read it.  She said that the timeline of an expert reader means that you will have a Proustian moment with the words you read.  You will need time to think about what you are reading first with each pause between words.  “We need to read fast enough so we can have time to think our own thoughts.

Wolf talked about students who were labeled dyslexic were really kids that had different brains and 30-35% of today’s entrepreneurs had childhood dyslexia.  We haven’t learned how to teach reading to the child right.  Now with the digital age the young students who are learning words are in this mode of “suspended distraction.”  They have no time to think through the meaning of words, everything is given to them where they don’t have to think on their own.  They are surfers of knowledge now and it is not efficient.

Socrates feared that print would give the illusion of truth and create no ambition in the young beyond the superfluity of knowledge.  Ms. Wolf quoted someone else as saying: “How horrible it would be that the very intellect that created the Internet would be destroyed by it.”  She ended on a more positive note that it is good for the brain to know and understand two languages.  Goethe said that in order to understand your own language, you must learn and understand another.  She advocated bi-lingualism.

I spent the rest of my day in the Technology Pavilion learning more about TOEFL with TOEIC, Criterion, Lexile and many other good sites.  What fun to end it with Elizabeth at the TOEFL Spring break party they sponsored.  We got zany sunglasses and ate pizza and chips.  After that I went shopping and walked around Boston Commons.  More photos to come.

Leave a comment »

TESOL sessions attended and Kazakhstan’s education

Starting early at my first 7:30 a.m. session, which feels like mid-day to me in my jet-lagged state, I learned more about a new tool called Lexile.  The session was titled “Using TOEFL Reading Scores to Differentiate Instruction.” I’ll learn more about this at the Technology Pavilion in the Exhibit Hall sponsored by ETS and the TOEFL Assessment “U.”  Knowing more about this will help with improving our Kazakh students reading scores.

Next session from 8:30-9:30 were three “luminary speakers” in the Grand Ballroom discussing “TESOL: Past, Present and Future.” Funny, especially Andy Curtis, but the other two Kathi Bailey and David Nunan were mildly entertaining.  They could have left off their political commentary going back to the 1960s when TESOL first started.  They depicted in their powerpoint, my Cold War heroes, President Ronald Reagan as a two-bit actor and Margaret Thatcher as a shop-keeper’s daughter.  They mimicked a lot from Obama, so clearly the presenters thoughts were that all smart people voted for Obama and the other side were idiots. Not too luminary in their thinking on that score.

From 10:00 to 10:45 I went to the Westin hotel next to the HUGE convention center to see my friend from the University of Minnesota who has made a name for herself working in the ITA (intl. teaching assistants) program I started out teaching once I got my Masters degree in 1990.  The title was intriguing “What ITAs should know about U.S. Nonverbal Classroom communication.” Colleen wasn’t there so I hope to catch up with her today.  I went to the Publishers Hall and bought some things like textbooks and other gift items.

The best session I attended with 50 people in the room was titled “Where’s the Money!!” Achieving Program Financial Stability” by Dr. Jim Pettersson. He explained in 45 minutes how their Language Center went from being state-appropriated funded to being self-funded. He explained the reasons for the change and the advantages and disadvantages.  He had a very thorough handout that discussed his business plan, the marketing used, enrollment and tuition compared to the competition.  Very informative.

Then at 12:30 I attended the poster sessions and wanted to find out more about how one person from New Orleans used movies in the ESL classroom.  That interest also coincides with my going to the ETS booth and getting another YouTube video done of me where I talk about using video clips in the classroom to encourage students to write.  Especially those clips that have surprise endings, the students WANT to express themselves.  Other good sessions were represented in one big room with handouts galore.

At 1:00 to 1:45 I attended a Discussion group session that was very appropriate for my situation in my new job in Astana, Kazakhstan “How ESL Teachers Become ESL Managers.”  I especially liked when one of the three talked about the hardest part of her job as a manager was to dismiss people because of budget cuts but then also the advantage of her position was that she enjoyed bringing four fellow teachers that she was mentoring to the TESOL conference.  All three told it like it is, very refreshing to hear and see their openness about their positions as administrators.  A lot of time commitment to answering e-mails and yet juggling their roles with their family responsibilities.

From 2:00-3:00 I attended a workshop titled “Educational Cultures in Conflict” and there were about 35 people in attendance. We discussed “culture bumps” and did a “Forced Choice Ladder activity”  I especially liked a quote that was on the handout written by Steven Simpson in 2008.

“The first misinterpretation Western teachers’ face is with the country and/or school; are you being asked to bring your pedagogical expertise or simply your linguistic expertise? “  Simpson goes on to write about three stages of acculturation:

1)   Baggage Brought – prior experience and expectations of the Westerner

2)   Hand Dealt – awakening stage in which EFL teachers start to understand the reality and constraints of the local context

3)   Fertile Soil – emerging, personal and professional issues in which the Western teacher begins to negotiate decisions in a more culturally sensitive and professionally productive way.”

Yes, this needs to be sorted out once our new university receives the western teachers to Astana.  I believe there are more layers of complexity than what Simpson describes but this was just a teaser.  My blog the last several years attests to what I have been struggling with as far as conflicts in educational cultures, West meets Kazakh/Soviet.

From 3:00 to 3:45 there was “The Role of the Administrator in a Learning Organization” – the abstract explains what our current situation is in Astana “Managing educational institutions is about articulating countless variables amidst constant change…What do institutions need to succeed? What can administrators do to ensure it?”  More on that topic later…

By 4:00 p.m. I was fairly tired and ready for a long winter’s nap even though it had been sunny most of the day in Boston.  I was fortunate to run into a graduate school friend of mine from U of Minnesota who had asked me to take an anthropology class with him.  Thom Upton went on to get his Ph.D. and because of that lousy class we took together, (misery loves company), I was able to finish my M.A. within two years.  But I’ll also be forever indebted to Thom for telling me about the TEFL trainer job opening in Kazakhstan back in April 1993 when one month later I found myself in Almaty, training Peace Corps volunteers and I met my husband at that time in Kazakhstan.  Ah, such romance with my dear Dr. Ken Gray!

Also in that same era of May 1993 I met Elizabeth Macdonald in Washington D.C. before we pushed off for Central Asia and she has been in and out of my life ever since. She was the skilled TEFL trainer in Bishkek Kyrgyzstan and then we lived blocks from each other in the Washington D.C. area after I got married to Ken.  I ran into her after meeting with Thom at the conference and we had coffee together catching up.  Meeting Thom and Elizabeth capped off an already good day. I look forward to what is in store for me today with learning more about TOEFL all day at the Technology Pavilion.

Comments (2) »

How to Catch a Plagiarist!

I already know who my A students are out of 11 as we lurch into Day Five out of 30 days of course instruction for Summer Session One. I have five more weeks to find out who my B and C students are and hopefully none will fail.  Unless, of course, I catch them in plagiarism which I have sternly warned them to not even try it with me.  I usually can easily detect the plagiarists.  They try to lazily get by among those who are more honest enrolling to LEARN how to improve their writing. A genuine student shows up quickly especially for us writing teachers who have to check all aspects of a students skills in listening, interacting, logical reasoning, following through with assignments, facility with grammar and spelling and finally how adept the students are with using the computer.  The following are ways I can spot a plagiarist a mile away.


First, the plagiarist doesn’t follow instructions.  I’m not sure if it is a listening problem or if it is purposeful, maybe a combination of both.  I had one girl in a recent TOEFL class I taught who was a very weak student.  She tried to cover it up by being confused by the instructions or she claimed she didn’t understand so it was probably a reading comprehension problem as well.  In any case, I was flummoxed why she was taking an advanced course of TOEFL to see about placement in a western university abroad.  She needed to be back in a remedial class brushing up on the basics.  Another instance was this same girl’s computer started shutting down (I think on purpose) so that she wailed she had lost her whole document she had been typing on. Yeah right. 


Second, a known plagiarist skips classes and they make a habit of this practice early on.  That way they have a reason for not knowing what the assignments are or not doing it as the instructor asks them to.  This happened with a girl back in Minnesota who was too busy with her job to bother to show up for my class.  She had a stunning essay about young people and drunk driving she submitted to me electronically.  It didn’t take long, matter of seconds, to find the same essay on the Internet. I caught her red-handed.  I can’t remember if she dropped out or if I failed her in the class when I showed her the evidence. 


Third, these “kidnappers of words” (Latin root) like to come and talk one-on-one with you as their teacher. These “kidnappers” take up teachers’ valuable time explaining why they didn’t do their assignment or why they don’t like doing it the way we prescribe. My guess is that these talkers want you to see how good their English is and they are very communicative on an oral level.  I won’t be fooled by this tactic.  Oral fluency skills are different from writing skills.  Give me the students who are NOT good talkers, more introverted and readers, they are typically the good writers.  I have two who wrote in their first night of class that they LOVE reading.  I love those kinds of students, they produce great writing samples right away.


Fourth, these talkers about their writing can also be found out to be good liars.  Case in point, one girl came to my office a couple hours before class was to begin to tell me she would be absent because her boss called her back to the office. (I wonder about some of these masters students who are juggling a full time job and taking not one but maybe two extremely intensive summer session classes.)  I’m not sure when they have time to sleep with all the reading they are assigned to do along with writing about it.  I have a couple students who are mothers so they are “supermoms” going back to school but I appreciate their maturity.  Sometimes older students are my best students because they take their learning seriously.  Funny thing about this same young girl who was absent, I found her smoking a cigarette behind another building right after our class was through.  I don’t like being lied to, no teacher does.


These are the tell-tale signs of a plagiarist in action, not following instructions, skipping classes and talking to me about why they don’t want to send their assignments to me electronically.  ?!?  I’m just wondering if known plagiarists are among our teaching ranks or God forbid, among our top administrators at our institution of higher learning.  Just asking because by the time I get to the end of the sixth week of teaching this summer session we all know what the level of involvement is with each student.  The student knows that I know just by what they have produced in class and by their attendance and level of participation.


Writing is NOT like some impersonal lecture class of 100s of students where a few students claim to be surprised by the final results of a final examination of 100 multiple choice questions.  No, the writing process is ongoing from the get-go and a very personal and sometimes exhaustive communication between the teacher and students.  Writing teachers should know their students very well by the end of the semester. That is, only when the students are writing honestly and not kidnapping other people’s words while the teachers take interest and read everything the students write.  Correction of grammar and mechanical errors in formatting styles is a whole ‘nother topic for a later blog post.

Leave a comment »

Eight Students’ Samples of Their “Slice of Life”

The following excerpts are from a 25 minute timed writing of my masters level students the first time we met on Monday evening. (I had them sign a consent form so I could share a “slice of life” with my faithful readers.) I asked no leading questions, just simply asked them to write about themselves and I was very pleased with the results.

I was also very happy yesterday to get a text message from a former student of mine whom I had tutored for several weeks for the iBT version of the TOEFL exam.  Andriy was my “dream student” who flew to Almaty from Aktobe just to brush up on his speaking skills, as well as writing.  This was his text message to me, it MADE MY DAY!!!


“Hi there, how r u? I just got my results! Guess what, I got 93! My hands were shaking when I saw that I could get the score! Now, I hope u of c [University of Calgary] will accept them! Thanks!”


Dinara – “…Though I am valued employee at my work (yet, there is no irreplaceable person) I feel an urge to apply what I’ve learnt so far in practice.  Consequently, I decided to apply for a position in Big 4.  I know that when I do want to achieve the goal and I am keen on subject matter, I will shift every effort to become maybe not the best one, but at least to be among the best…reading is another hobby of mine.  Honestly speaking, I used to spend hours and hours reading the book, I cannot tear myself from the book unless I read it right till the end.”


Irina – “In 2006, I decided to get MBA education in________.  I really thought it produced excellent specialists.  But I don’t want to write bad about all the _______students…just to say that many of graduates are “empty inside,” in particular bachelors (just “coolness).


Elvira – “My friends say that I am a good friend.  I build any relationships honestly.  I’m always ready to help. Even my name means “person who protects everyone and takes care”  Sometimes it is not good for me because all my spare time I can spend to someone else.  I have big problems with time management and I can’t make any priorities. 


Maya –I did what thousands of other teenagers did at the early nineties when Soviet Union was crushing and the market economy was coming to change the communism, I entered the Technology University, on economy faculty.  Many teenagers at that time wanted to be a businessman or businesswoman. At 1999, I graduated the university, but I did not feel confident about my knowledge obtained there, because the level of education was very low there. 


Yulia – I have a brother, his name is Igor and he is younger than me on 8 years.  He is a hockey player.  Actually, it was the dream of my father to play hockey but in those Soviet time unfortunately it was impossible to play hockey if you are not Russian (because Russian men are strong, tall and brave.) I’m not sure that it was true, maybe it was the joke of my father but I believed him. 


Gulnar – “I dream to visit Japan, Italy and Brasilian.  I think their cultures are colorful and interesting.  I admire women, those who can combine family duties and good career.  I really want that Hillary Clinton would become the first women-president in USA, I believe that she is smart, strong and kind.


N.T. – “My favorite dream is “become great ruler which lead to Kazakhstani people to prosperity and sustainable development.”  I hope that God will bless Kazakhstan and me.  Also, I think that every person should be patriot, in family and country.  Also, I think and hope, and believe every one in this life have mission.  Who knows, maybe I have also great mission because it’s hard and stupid to just live.”


Leave a comment »