Posts tagged prostitution

Students’ Perspectives on Human Trafficking

SunriseI realize I haven’t written much lately on this blog.  Gardening, spring cleaning, writing newspaper articles, the list is endless concerning what has distracted me from blogging more. Clearly I am not living in Kazakhstan anymore so I can’t write too much about Kazakh students. However, I am still working with Asian students so I feel right at home in my own hometown in Minnesota.  I will get more on track with writing during this summer in anticipation of next fall and teaching incoming freshmen students.

For now, here are the perspectives from my last class on an assignment I gave them about human trafficking. Most of these are Korean students from my Comp I class, some have English names which helps me as their teacher to call on them in class.

Perspectives on Human trafficking Assignment

Marcus – The thing I liked most about writing this paper was learning a completely new topic that I did not know before. I was never fully aware of the conflicts of human trafficking until I researched my topic of human sex trafficking.  The thing I liked most about this paper was that it built my perspective on life and how we should appreciate the things we take for granted. There are many people in this world that deal with daily struggles that we cannot even fathom. From this I am motivated to better myself so I can in return help others in the future.

Ju Young – Actually I like the most about Human Trafficking issue. I have heard about it before but I didn’t know exactly what the Human Trafficking is and how it is severe recent days. After I finished my Paper#3, I had a lots of chance to think about human trafficking and I tried to help them by UNICEF by monthly donation for an Indian girl ( I can’t remember her name..). Above all now I have lots of thinking about human trafficking and maybe in the future, I will help them and I would say that my helping is from the writing of this assignment.

I think I have learned about this paper is how humans are worthy. Sometimes I thought that my life is sad and why I am in the hard society? Such as hard to entering school in Korea, I have to go to military. But after I did my paper on human trafficking, my thinking was totally changing. I was surprised at too much people are struggling with their tough life and they need a lot of help from me and us. From the doing this paper,  Not only for changing my life and thinking, but I have a broaden sight for looking around me and helping them.

Hayden – Human trafficking is rather quite disturbing topic. Child soliders was my topic and through my research, I found out there are so many children who are in need of help. What I liked about this assignment is that I was glad to see that, around the world, there are people who are trying to reach out their hands to those forsaken children and strive to aid them. Basically, what I learned from writing this paper is that there are children who need help so much and the dark side of the world is just abhorring.

Janet – In this paper, I really like researching about the topic. Since I have been interested in human issues such as human trafficking. So, I really enjoyed researching about this topic. For me, I love the topic- online child pornography-in this paper. During the last topic of human trafficking issue, I really have interested in this issue. So, I choose this topic.

Calvin – Researching and finding information on the topic was not so much fun but informative and I enjoyed that part of the paper.  The troubles of others are unimaginable to those who don’t seek the truth.

Joe – Actually, this topic about human trafficking was too difficult for me to write. The topic was touchy one. However I learned about prostitution especially Asian prostitution more.

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Part II – Minnesota girl’s plight about being trafficked

The following is a continuation of what I posted yesterday.  More awareness needs to be raised about this problem of human trafficking…

Missing child

At age 11, Kayla began attending her old school again. One day she didn’t come home.

“I went through the streets looking for her,” Lauren said. “I just went through hell.”

Six days later, police officers found her at a community center.

Kayla said a classmate had beaten her up, and then taken her home, where the girl’s mother forced her to sell drugs and have sex with strangers.

Other young girls were being prostituted there too, Kayla said.

After police, acting on a tip, questioned the woman, she arranged for her daughter to leave Kayla at the community center.

Movies and television tend to portray pimps as black men sporting flashy jewelry, driving fancy cars and hanging out on street corners. But in reality anyone can be a pimp. Often they’re women.

“Times have changed,” said Sgt. John Bandemer of the St. Paul Police Depart­ment. “There are way more female pimps right now than male pimps.”

Another time, Kayla took her dog for a walk and didn’t come home for five days.

Again, Lauren reported to police that she was missing. Eventually, Kayla called to ask Lauren to pick her up on a street corner several miles from their home.

Kayla had been with a girl she met when she had been kidnapped before. The girl’s mother, another trafficker, drove Kayla around to several houses, where she was repeatedly raped. One of the men who raped Kayla during that time is the father of her baby, Lauren said.

“[Kayla] was so violent after that,” Lauren added. “She had been totally reprogrammed. She was talking to police officers about the ‘great family’ she was with.”

Traumatic bonding

Traffickers apply a potent mix of loving care alternated with violence, threats and dehumanizing behavior to control victims like Kayla.

They offer a false sense of security and love to establish a “trauma bond” with victims, according to Shared Hope International, a nonprofit organization in Washington state that works to prevent sex trafficking.

Trauma bonds are similar to Stockholm Syndrome, a psychological response where hostages become attached to the perpetrators and later defend them, a report from the organization explains.

One expert declared traffickers “the most brilliant child psychologists on the planet.”

When Kayla was seven months pregnant, she disappeared again. “I just had this horrible feeling,” Lauren said.

The next day, Kayla asked Lauren to pick her up at an apartment building. During the drive home, Kayla told Lauren she had been with “a bunch of pimps.” One of them wanted to be her boyfriend, she added. She said he had taken her shopping and bought her lingerie from Victoria’s Secret.

Then Kayla told Lauren she was going to move in with him.

At home, when Lauren blocked the door to prevent Kayla from leaving, she yanked Lauren’s hair, hurling her to the floor. Lauren raced to a neighbor’s house to call the police, who arrested Kayla for assault. “It might have saved her life,” Lauren said.

Later, Lauren learned that the pimp who wanted to be Kayla’s “boyfriend” controlled a massive interstate trafficking network.

Pimps often pose as a child’s “boy­friend,” building a romantic relationship to secure the child’s trust and allegiance, even after the relationship changes into one of violence, torture and abuse, according to Shared Hope International.

All children are at risk

To many, Kayla’s story might seem extraordinary. But it’s a story that plays out day after day in cities and suburbs throughout the United States. And it can happen to any child, regardless of socio-economic background or ethnicity, said Linda Miller, executive director of Civil Society. The St. Paul organization provides legal and other assistance to sex trafficking victims, including Kay­la.

“I’ve read a lot that these girls come from bad homes and they’re runaways,” Lauren said. “This isn’t a bad home. [Kayla] has had some issues in her life, her mother was a drug addict, but she’s been given nothing but love from me. I wasn’t a bad parent.”

Despite the trauma and abuse Kayla has experienced, Miller said she holds hope for Kayla’s future. Since October, Kayla has been receiving treatment at a residential center for girls with emotional and behavioral problems.

Parents need to educate children about the dangers of sex trafficking before it’s too late, Joy Friedman of the St. Paul organization Breaking Free said at a June forum on human trafficking. Friedman herself was a sex trafficking victim.

“We need parents to get involved,” Friedman said. “We need you to speak up and say you want [sex trafficking education] in your school so your kids can learn the facts that suburban life is not this shelter box. You do not get exempt because you live out in the suburbs and your mom drives a Mercedes and you have a wealthy background and you were raised right and you went to church. . . .

“Traffickers don’t care who you are,” she added. “Like they say: ‘8 to 80, blind, crippled or crazy, you’re still sellable. Because all we need are your parts.’”

Warning signs of child sex trafficking
» Truancy
» Declining grades
» Delinquency
» Curfew violations
» Running away from home
» Signs of violence and/or psychological trauma
» Underage drinking or drug use
» Unaccounted for time
» Unusual or secretive cell phone or computer usage

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In Kazakhstan “Creativity NEEDS freedom!”

I was chatting with my former Kazakh student and I wrote: “Creativity needs freedom. Independence of mind breeds wholesome thought.” I had just learned from her that a second year male student jumped to his death from the 9th floor window of his dormitory before the spring semester started.  This tragedy happened at the GREAT university in Astana where so much money has been poured into the building complexes, into these students and their high paid teachers from London.

What is even more tragic was that it was never reported in the local or national news in Kazakhstan. Somehow it was “smoothed” over as Aigerim put it. He was a good student but he could not take the pressure any longer. These students at my former Kazakh university are under such intense demands to perform.  Some have been ill equipped from their studies elsewhere in the country by teachers who are using old style Soviet methods.  My former student who was a teacher for some of the best and brightest students in Astana fears for her students lives, those who have been accepted in this great university that is meant to produce geniuses. They need a counselor in residence who can help these young defenseless students out, a place where they can vent or have a shoulder to cry on.

I believe these Kazakh students have such demands on them as if there is a gun pointed to the back of their head and they are told by their captors, “Be creative!”  I know Kazakhstan has a very high suicide rate (exceeds Russia) among their youth but it is regrettable that even among the most gifted, they feel desperate enough to end their lives.  These bright students are supposedly the hope of the future of Kazakhstan.  Perhaps they are the future slaves of their country. All 1,000 students are on full-ride scholarships. What does that tell you when some students want to end their lives in such a tragic way?

The following is what Aigerim wrote to me to give me an update on activities:

“How great you have been my teacher and I hope I learned something from you. The main thing I liked about your classes was the way you taught us to think beyond the context deep into the roots. Hope my classmates could manage teaching critical thinking at school using this up-to-date context. Your blog is a good source of “food for thought.” Perhaps, someone from the establishment will happen upon it someday, feel ashamed and start acting in the proper direction.

Your last Moodle assignment was on change management. I remember skipping this last task. No, I wasn’t stubborn or lazy. I just have no such a habit to reflect on what I do not know and have never done. Now, as I made some attempts it is possible to dwell on changes and ways of making change in Kazakhstani context. What if to entitle this post “Critical Thinking in Kazakhstan”?

There are not the only four centers for victims of human trafficking in our country. In my hometown Aktobe there is a crisis center for women who suffer domestic violence. These same centers help victims in the southern and northern parts of the country. Mostly these NGOs seek for grants from international organizations or, if the head is on good terms with the statesmen, get support from the government. Also, The National Red Crescent Society provides any kind of support to migrants and repatriates, single mothers and all those who are “unfortunates” in Kazakhstan.

I had a great opportunity to work with one of the shelters and visited another two, I learned about their work and, what is more valuable I learned the reasons that enslave people. As far as I know, the victims could be divided into the following groups: 1) migrants from neighboring countries (Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Russia, and China), 2) ethnic Kazakhs who return from Turkmenistan, China, Mongolia, Uzbekistan, etc. as they do not speak neither Kazakh nor Russian, 3) people from low-income rural areas, 4) children from orphanages, 5) troubled children and the saddest fact, children with mental and physical disabilities.

Once an American friend asked me, what if victims tell their story to interested people as it attracts society to the problem of trafficking. Actually, one of the rescued girls from Temirtau (small industrial town dozen kilometers away from Astana) became a volunteer. She talks to women at the shelter, helps them during the rehabilitation. However, it is the only case I witnessed. Due to Kazakh mentality, people prefer not to speak about being enslaved or being forced into prostitution. According to common idea, the only person to blame is the victim. She made a mistake, may be it was up to her way of living or behavior.

There was a happy ending recently with one of the rescued women in Astana. A Kazakh woman was forcibly involved into prostitution and she got pregnant. Unfortunately, I do not know the details of her case. I met her several times at the shelter since autumn. Gulmira was pregnant and soon bore a baby boy. The baby was weak and they spent much time in the hospital. When I told about babies in the shelter, my current boss gathered three bags of children’s clothes and toys. Moreover, the most part of them were new. She said her kids grow up fast that they are not able to use all the clothes given as presents. Anyway, these bags were a great joy for my people. When I brought these and other clothes different people donated (my family members, colleagues and even my manicure girl!), people at the shelter looked at children’s stuff with joy and excitement. The feeling of warmth emerges when you show some support and encouragement to those who are misfortunate.

But about Gulmira, in winter her relatives came and took her home. I remember, Luba, the NGO coordinator at IOM, sighed with relief speaking about this woman. It is unusual for Kazakhs to accept the shame of being a prostitute and having a baby from an unknown person. Indeed, these Kazakhs forgive everything and are sincerely happy with the fact that their sibling is alive. So, it all depends on the family.

Unfortunately, Amina is an orphan from southern Kazakhstan, has problems with eyesight. Her relatives sold her for servitude in Astana, and kept receiving her invalid’s pension. When she was rescued, she had a baby in her belly. When I last saw Amina she was looking for a job. Unfortunately, she has no home and welcoming relatives.”

Thanks to my former student who sees and knows things I could never be aware about while back in the U.S. She can inform me about what is happening in Kazakhstan even though my blog is now blocked from being read within Kazakhstan unless people have a VPN (Very Private Network).  Yes, there is no freedom of thought in Kazakhstan if things are blocked or obfuscated such as this suicide that was not reported. They certainly do not want people from the outside to know that slavery is going on in Kazakhstan.  If it helps for those who CAN read this in Kazakhstan and feel ashamed of the statistics about slavery, it is going on everywhere in the world.  EVERYWHERE.  What we need is creativity in knowing how to solve this problem so that ALL people can be free!

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“A pair of shoes or a warm sweater…” (Part II)

The following is a continuation of updates I’m getting from contacts I have back in Kazakhstan. Amazing what a life changing thing a simple pair of shoes or a warm sweater can make for some rescued people who have experienced deprivation through slavery.  The photo shows the two chairs that turn into beds that many of us Minnesota women helped buy for one of the trafficking shelters in Almaty.  Read what my former student, Aigerim, wrote about a shelter she works at in Astana, Kazakhstan:

Dear Teacher!

Hope you are doing well and I could see and talk to you face to face again and try your chocolate chip cookies!

Anyway life is like a roller-coaster. Though I have some personal troubles with my work yet the [trafficking] shelter fulfill the gaps and make it meaningful. When I first started to work with Anara, the head of the shelter in Astana, there were three women rescued from the slavery. Three different women had different backgrounds, same trouble. Finally here’s a continuation of the story.

The first, Natasha is 21 years old. Her mother is alcohol addicted woman with a slight mental disability used to bring men home, drink and then let them sleep with her teenage daughter. Natasha is mentally slow, and could be abused easily. Her mother once sold her for a few bottles of vodka. These men kept and forced into prostitution for about 8 months then let her go or may be just thrown away. Natasha was trapped by other people in Astana and was rescued by chance.

To the flat, where Natasha was kept the owner brought another girl. This new girl quarreled with mother and ran away to the city where she was kidnapped at the railway station. Ending up at the same flat with Natasha, the new girl broke the window and asked for help. The neighbors heard the cries and called the police.  The new girl went back home and Natasha was taken to the shelter. Natasha was supposed to go to the college of vocational training and continue her education.  Before the start of learning she asked people to send her home to her mother. Natasha did not come back; her disease and being genetically addicted to alcohol became much stronger than all the treatment at the shelter.

Next is Vera. She is 27, has a boy of 11 years. The baby was at the orphanage because of her alcohol addiction. On this reason she became a slave and was forced into prostitution.  I don`t how Vera got to the shelter, but she was there more than half a year. Anara helped her take a son from orphanage and sent to the manicure courses, then found a job in the village near the shelter. However, Vera started drinking again. Now she is in the clinic for alcohol and drug addicted people for 4 months and her son Vlad lives in the shelter and goes to the local school. Mary promised to give some clothes for the boy.

And the last is Asema. She is 25, used to be a prostitute and then forced to work for the owner. At the shelter she got the cure and went to the manicure courses. Now she works at the beauty salon near the office of the fund and I see her from time to time.  She always smiles to me and looks pretty good. Anara and all the shelter workers hope she will do well and start a new life.

These three women used to attend English classes in summer when I started my work. That is the background of my work with the trafficking shelter and the public fund. I`ll write you more about activities we did together with the British teacher volunteers, if it is interesting for you teacher. Now I need to have lunch and go to teach business people to earn some money!

Cheers!  Aigerim

carpe diem!

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Former Kazakh Police Officer Writes about Human Trafficking

I LOVE getting comments from my blog readers! Today’s is very well informed about human trafficking in Kazakhstan.  The following is from a Kazakh person who used to be a police officer in Almaty.

“I have a passion for what I am doing with human trafficking, and I am so happy to meet the person like you, who has a passion for what she is doing.

First time I dealt with a trafficking case in 1996, when I used to work as a police officer. I knew that three victims were trafficked to Emirates and forced to prostitution. I knew who the traffickers were. And I couldn’t do anything, because there was no article in the national Penal Code to charge for trafficking in persons, and the victims were imprisoned abroad for prostitution although they were initially forced to prostitution! And my colleagues and I couldn’t help these young ladies to return, just because there was not any agreement of legal assistance between the Emirates and Kazakhstan…

When these ladies served their sentences and returned to Kazakhstan, they rejected any cooperation with the police and didn’t want their traffickers to be charged. They just wanted no one and nothing to remind them about what happened to them in Emirates… I understood them and respected their choice. But I was really stung… Why was I wearing my uniform if I couldn’t protect these ladies?…

In a few years, I left the police force because I had reached my glass ceiling in that career, and also for family reasons, and started working as a lawyer in a defense lawyers’ office. But very soon I realized that I was still stung with that case of 1996, and, as soon as IOM advertized a position of counter-trafficking program coordinator for Central Asia I applied, and was selected for this position. This was really an opportunity for me to contribute into combating human trafficking much more than I could when used to be just a police officer!

Here’s another comment that I could NOT ignore…

“You wrote earlier in your blog that the shelter for victims of trafficking in Amaty “is funded by the Almaty City government”. I am sorry but this is NOT correct, as this statement makes an impression that the city administration (of government, as you like) is covering all the costs of the shelter. This is not true… The only support the shelter in Almaty ever received from the city administration were very modest salaries for some of its staff. These salaries were provided to the shelter staff who were registered as unemployed at the district administrations at the places of their dwelling in Almaty. The city administration just considered the employment of these individuals in the shelter to be a part of solution of the unemployment problem in the city. So, the issue was that the shelter had employed a few citizens who were unemployed before. The role of the shelter as a place to assist the victims of trafficking was not specially considered by the city administration. Moreover, the shelter director never knows whether the city administration would or would not support these salaries in the next year. And, taking in account that these salaries are extremely modest, she needs to look for more funding to cover the whole amount of her staff salaries.

All the other funding is provided to the shelter by non-governmental donors rather than the city administration.  Some of these donors are: IOM, Almaty International Women’s Club (AIWC), and US Embassy to Kazakhstan.
Of course it is good that the Almaty city administration is supporting the shelter. But please take in account this is a minimal possible support.

There are currently three shelters for victims of human trafficking in Kazakhstan. I think people who told you so meant exactly the shelters which serve ONLY victims of trafficking. And there are many other shelters in Kazakhstan, which serve victims of domestic violence, homeless people and other vulnerable individuals. These might be 20 or even more such shelters. Some of these “other shelters” do serve victims of trafficking if this kind of victim is referred to these shelters.  However, in my and my colleagues’ understanding, the nature of the crime of trafficking results in a very serious and specific traumatization, and victims of this crime need very special treatment.

Moreover, the security measures must be doubled for them, in comparison with battered women and other beneficiaries of the “other shelters”. So serving victims of trafficking in a specialized shelter is the best solution for them, while receiving and serving them in the “other shelters” might contribute to their traumatization and vulnerability instead of rehabilitating them.”

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A Kazakh’s View of Human Trafficking in Kazakhstan

You never know where curiosity may take you. Just today I was asked why I have taken on this terrible topic of human trafficking and slavery.  I guess I’m interested in peoples’ freedom of expression, especially in Kazakhstan.  I’m glad I have Kazakh friends back in Kazakhstan who have the same passion to eradicate this crime against humanity.  The following piece is written by a Kazakh woman who has seen with her own eyes a shelter for victims caught in slavery.  Thankfully they escaped but there are thousands of others still trapped. I think Nadia articulates the problem very well:

“I hope that those responsible for human rights protection will hear about situation in Kazakhstan. The world media cries about human rights in different countries, even neighboring Uzbekistan is under the pressure of world organizations. Only Kazakhstan is quiet as a steppe around Astana. I don`t blame world NGOs or the government, the society is guilty for severe human rights abuse in Kazakhstan. I`m a part of this culture and I know where the roots lie.

As you wrote in an earlier blog, there is a girl who was sold for slavery by her mother. This case shows the vicious circle of ignorance and indifference in which Kazakh society will be drawn.

Natasha used to live with her mother, alcohol addicted, who constantly brought strange men to their home. Those men hit the poor girl and then slept with her. Natasha did not attend school as she is mentally slow. The girl has some psychological disease. One day her mother sold her to some men for some bottles of vodka. These men kept Natasha for eight months and forced her into prostitution, then let her go or just threw her away. Natasha was caught by other businessmen, but this time she was rescued. By chance there was another girl kept in the same flat, she refused to work for masters and started to cry from a window when bosses went away.

As the psychologist explained, Natasha due to her illness and constant abuse at home, she lost her protective instinct. People like this keep obeying and get used to being forced.

Now there is a question who is to blame for the ruined life of a young woman? Her mother? Poor life conditions? In my opinion, people who witnessed mother`s attitude toward her daughter and did nothing: neighbors, teachers at school and local authorities are responsible for Natasha`s life. There`s no law to charge them, but there is a social rule of humanity which is now forgotten.”

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More Bleak Facts with KZ’s “Growing Pains”

As an American teacher of Kazakh teachers, I believe it is my duty to make them and others aware of what is REALLY happening in this great country of Kazakhstan.  I try to bring out all the wonderful qualities that are here but there are facts that cannot be ignored.  Such as the following:

Based on data in last 12 months from only one centre for people who are victims of trafficking:

  • almost every day in Astana at least one under 18 girl is identified as providing commercial sexual services (voluntarily or forcibly)
  • 45 victims of trafficking rescued and provided with shelters
  • there were 11 girls of age from 12-18 rescued from forced prostitution
  • 12 illegal and legal workers rescued from forced labor
  • reported at least 3 cases of pregnant women forced to provide sexual service up to a date of delivery and already 4 days after. They were denied medical treatment.
  • 4 girls were providing sexual services in presence of their babies and small children

I talked to an older and wiser Kazakh woman who knows there IS a problem and she said that she had seen a movie about a Ukrainian girl who had been used as a sex slave in Italy.  This movie got top prize in whatever film festival but she couldn’t remember the name of it, the young girl was played by a famous Russian actress.  Apparently as the story goes, whether it is true or not, it builds on the reality of many Eastern European girls who are used as prostitutes against their wishes.  They are told one thing, and they are forced to become prostitutes.  In this case the girl birthed nine children and never saw them.  She had a man she loved but he was killed and she found his remains in at a garbage dump.  If anyone knows what the name of this movie is, among my blog readership, please comment and let me know.

The following are comments made by my students about this terrible topic:

“It was terrible to read the information about sexual trafficking of women. How can people do it? How do they dare? Don’t they have their own mothers, daughters, sisters? How can this ever happen? How can somebody force another one to have sex when she doesn’t want? There are many girls who would do it with pleasure. Why not take those girls and leave alone those who don’t want to?”

Another student wrote this:  The story she gave in her presentation is like the ones that Marinka told us. This girl is very lucky to be escaped. What about the others who are still there? What about those who went missing or even died? “Don’t be afraid of bad people’ be afraid of those who are not afraid of God” once I heard an old man saying. I think the recruiters are never afraid of God as they do such things. So I think it is up to us, teachers, to make our students be aware of human trafficking and be careful.

Next sensitive student wrote the following:

This case have much in common with those Kyrgyz women’s ones. All of them underwent the hardship of being rescued once they get involved into the business of human trafficking. The thing that shocked me most off all is about the victims of trafficking in Astana, in the city, where we live. We used to think that such awful problems happen somewhere far away, far away from us, but it is not so. Who knows, perhaps, we meet those victims everyday in the streets of our capital city.

We say that world is getting better, but we do not always know what the real meaning of it is. Yes, I do not deny, the conditions for life is getting better, the amenities to live with comfort is improving. But! The most important creatures of the world – people – are dehumanizing themselves. That’s a big problem. It is the problem that causes a lot of them. The things that we create with hardships, we destroy at a glance.

Finally, this comment takes a different direction with those people who claim to help the poor and underprivileged but in fact pocket the money for themselves.  Here is an example of how greed of one person is corruption to the country’s detriment.  God bless those expats who are here in Kazakhstan from the outside who try to help rescue these vulnerable people.  Each person is valuable in God’s sight.

“As an educator I am aware of the situation with children`s rights in our country, but that knowledge painful for my heart. The government, NGO and of course UNICEF do much to improve the situation, but it is very common in our country that every good beginning will fade or ruined by corruption.

Remember the case with children infected with HIV in Chimkent several years ago, the fund was formed to gather money and donations to help families of those kids. A good idea! People could not stand aside and a big sum was gathered, but the money did not reach the point of destination. The head of the fund spent it on organizational needs such as a leather bag for 24,000 tenge, office equipment and transportation, he also invested money into some business for a year.

There is no law in our country about funds, so that man wasn`t afraid of it, but the moral law meant nothing for him also. You may argue saying that it was the only case, but people, it is a very example of our mentality, unfortunately.”

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