The philosophical question was posed by Walter Duranty of “Does the end justify the means?” What were the “means” used? That is why I am glad I read what Duranty wrote in this book published in 1935 despite the six or so pages missed by the scanner. I am on a quest to find out what might have been purposely left off for the Web readers to know. Anyone can download this book by the above title, all 347 pages of it.
So, W.D. answers that perplexing question with the Soviet Goal being for the “betterment of humanity there can be no loftier aspiration.” Yet earlier he wrote about the human cost. My husband, ever the economist, claims the price of the Soviets replenishing not only the human capital wasted but also the livestock killed off took a staggering amount of time into many decades to return to what it used to be when it was just individual peasants in the vast land of the former Soviet republics.
WD wrote a poem in ee cummings style to writing a piece he didn’t believe in 1917 about the war, but he got good marks for it from his editors “I plead guilty to adding a little color on occasion.” [if that is not an admission to lying, as Malcolm Muggeridge claimed Duranty did, I don’t know what is]
p. 310 – American objection to communism, it is not only foreign but coercive and therefore repugnant to our love of personal independence
p. 310 Bridge from “rugged individualism” to “capitalist collectives” without involving coercive or violence or any of the sufferings which during past five years have attended the birth pangs of Soviet socialization. [these were not “birth pangs” as if a hopeful child was born but the death throes of civilization!!!]
p. 314 – W.D. asks the question “Why did Russian people endure such hardship without revolt?”
1) ruling forces had no choice Lenin’s famous speech of “Kto Kavo” (who beats whom?) according to him, no compromise was possible
2) poor peasants had more to give than those who were not as poor
3) propaganda – emotional “sturm and drang” of Great War of West
Sabotage trials – Kulak hate, Japan threat, rise of Hitler, machivation of foreign capitalists
Lenin solved puzzle – communist party + 100,000 tractors and modern farm machiner = rural socialism
Soviet War fought on two fronts – industrial and agrarian
Turning point of industrial victory came in the beginning 1932
Initial success in Moscow, Leningrad [used to be called St. Petersburg] and Kharkov [city in Ukraine]
Bob Lamont – son of Secy of Commerce in 1932, made a trip to stock raising station, NE Caucaus, conditions not so bad, hearkens back to 1921 Famine or whitewash stories sort of modern Potemkin village.
Kalmikov – president of autonomous republic of Kabarda – heart of cattle country
p. 317 – Bob Lamont said when livestock dies wholesale “You can’t treat your pigs the way you treat your peasants. Pigs won’t stand for it, can’t coerce them with exile.”
WD had not been back in NY since 1926 much better conditions than Soviet press led to believe.
W.D. had admired Hoover because of his help in A.R.A. up to this point but then he did not agree with Hoover when he said that Russia was an “economic vacuum”
W.D. also didn’t like when Ogden Mills – Secy. Of Tres. told him that the US will never stand for diplomat relations with a government of atheists and unbelievers
July of 1932 W.D. was invited to Albany, NY by Gov. Roosevelt – W.D. found him broadminded – profound knowledge of Soviet affairs [that’s probably because he read whatever Duranty wrote in the New York Times]
p. 323 – Kaganovich – Political Tractor – Finish five year plan in four years
W.D. in April 1933 – flew through Ukraine on way to Constantinople – Solution to agrarian problem
WD asked about mortality rates in Ukraine when he stopped through
p. 324 – nobody knew – new people had come to Ukraine in place, so 9/10s were really new and didn’t know how many Ukrainians had really died during the starvation period of 1932-33
Roosevelt recognized USSR in 1933.
p. 325 one of sorrows of life of a conscientious reporter is that sensational stories are always the most interesting but the drab ones often the most true. [not sure what W.D. meant by that]
WD accompanied Litnivov to D.C. who claimed it would take a ½ hour to work things out with the two countries in talks, it took 10 days
18 month stagnation of being after agreement
July 1935 Litvinov and Am. Ambassador Wm. C. Bullitt
p. 328 in Britain – the British Fear God and human thinking while the U.S. – Americans Honor the President as People’s Choice
p. 329 – possession of wealth is regarded as a shame, the attempt to use wealth for personal gain or advantage is juridically a crime
What I don’t understand about Walter Duranty is that he criticized rugged individualism while he was trying to make his mark in the world by reporting what he thought on the “Soviet experiment.” This book titled “I Write as I Please” essentially would make him money or at least personal gain. I’d be curious to know how much money he DID make and how he lived into his final years. I understand that he died in the 1950s in Florida. Any historians are welcome to help me out on this, I’m loathe to go to Wikipedia to find out what might be a slant on this man in his favor.